Thursday, 25 October 2018

CDK Depict on HTTPS

Just a quick post to say CDK Depict is now using HTTPS The main reason for this was Blogger stopped allowing image links to HTTP resources. In general browsers are being more fussy about non HTTPS content.

I used LetsEncrypt that turned out to be very easy to configure with TomCat.

Step 1

Install the certbot utility and use it generate a certificate.

$ sudo certbot certonly

Step 2

Configure TomCat 8+ connectors. This used to be more complex on older TomCat servers with the need to generate a separate keystore. Editing $CATALINA_HOME/confg/server.xml we configure the base connected, redirectPort is changed from 8443 to 443 (and 8080 to 80).

<Connector port="80" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
           redirectPort="443" />

We also configure SSL connector, using port 443, change to NIO based protocol (the default requires extra native library) org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol, and set the file paths to the .pem files generated by certbot.

<Connector port="443" 
           maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" >
  <UpgradeProtocol className="org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol" />
    <Certificate certificateKeyFile="/etc/letsencrypt/live/"
                 type="RSA" />

Step 3 (optional)

If a client tries to visit the HTTP site we want to redirect them to HTTPS. To do this we edit $CATALINA_HOME/confg/web.xml adding this section to the end of the <web-app> block

    <web-resource-name>Entire Application</web-resource-name>

Monday, 22 October 2018

Bit packing for fast atom type assignment

Many cheminformatics algorithms perform some form of atom typing as their first step. The atom types you need and the granularity depend on the algorithm. At the core of all atom typing lies some form of decision tree, usually manifesting as a complex if-else cascade.

Using an elegant technique Roger showed me a few years ago, you can replace this if-else cascade with a table/switch lookup. This turns out to be very clean, easy to extend, and efficient. The technique relies on first computing a value that captures the bond environment around an atom and packing this in to a single value.

Here's what it looks like:
Algorithm 1
int btypes = atom.getImplicitHydrogenCount();
for (IBond bond : atom.bonds()) {
  switch (bond.getOrder()) {
    case SINGLE: btypes += 0x0001; break;
    case DOUBLE: btypes += 0x0010; break;
    case TRIPLE: btypes += 0x0100; break;
    default:     btypes += 0x1000; break;

After the value btypes has been calculated (once for each atom) it contains the count of single, double, triple, and other bonds. We can inspect each of these counts individually my masking of the relevant bits or the entire value, for example:
Algorithm 2
switch (btypes) {
 case 0x004: // 4 single bonds, e.g. Sp3 carbon
 case 0x012: // 1 double bond, 2 single bonds e.g. Sp2 carbon
 case 0x020: // 2 double bonds e.g. Sp cumulated carbon
 case 0x101: // 1 triple bond, 1 single bond e.g. Sp triple bonded carbon

Using a nibble allows us to store numbers up to 16 (24) - more than enough for any sane chemistry. In the example above I shoved default bonds under an 'other' category but of course you could extend it to handle quadruple bonds and even additional properties of the bonds:
Algorithm 3
int btypes = atom.getImplicitHydrogenCount();
for (IBond bond : atom.bonds()) {
  switch (bond.getOrder()) {
    case SINGLE: 
      if (bond.isAromatic())
        btypes += 0x010001; 
        btypes += 0x000001;
    case DOUBLE: 
      if (bond.isAromatic())
        btypes += 0x010010; 
      else if (isOxygen(bond.getOther(atom)))
        btypes += 0x100010; // dbs to oxygens
        btypes += 0x000010;
    case TRIPLE: 
       btypes += 0x000100;

Friday, 13 April 2018

RDKit Reaction SMARTS

There's a been some papers using the RDKit for synthesis planning. If you're writing a paper and use the term "Reaction SMARTS" make sure you mean what everyone else thinks it means.

The SMILES, SMARTS, and SMIRKS line notations were created* by Daylight for storing, matching, and transforming connection tables.

  • SMILES describes a connection table to store molecule and reactions
  • SMARTS describes a pattern (or query) to match molecules and reactions
  • SMIRKS describes a transform (or "reaction") to modify molecules

RDKit uses the term "Reaction SMARTS" to mean "transform" (see RDKit Book). Unfortunately in Daylight's terminology Reaction SMARTS is a pattern not a transform.

Screenshot from the Daylight SMARTS theory manual.
Reactions SMARTS is primarily useful for searching reaction databases. For example this Reaction SMILES:


is matched by this Reaction SMARTS

[*:1][Nh2:2]>>[*:1][Nh0:2](~[OD1])~[OD1] amino to nitro

You can highlight the substructure:

Highlighting the SMARTS in the SMILES using CDK Depict

But that's a transform!

Yes but it's matching a transform (SMARTS) not applying one (SMIRKS), some may think you could read this unmodified as a SMIRKS but this is not the case. SMIRKS needs "real parts" after the second angled bracket as these are the parts created by the transform. Note that '*' is valid SMILES and in SMIRKS it kind of means "unmodified". This actually gives us the nice invariants:

All SMILES are valid SMARTS but not all SMARTS are valid SMILES
All SMIRKS are valid SMARTS but not all SMARTS are valid SMIRKS

Here is the SMIRKS transform for amino to nitro

[*:1][ND3:2]([H])([H])>>[*:1][N:2](=O)=O amino to nitro

In SMIRKS I can apply this SMIRKS to "molecules" and it will create "reactions". Note these molecules do not need to have atom-maps but they will come out with atom maps (see dt_transform)!


The output is


And another thing...

In general you can't run SMIRKS backwards. If I want to run a nitro to amino because the atoms/bonds we're adding need to be "real" we need to encode the reverse transform separately!

[*:1][ND3:2]([H])([H])>>[*:1][N:2](=O)=O amino to nitro
[*:1][ND3:2](~[OD1])(~[OD1])>>[*:1][N:2]([H])[H] nitro to amino

Although dt_transform specifies a direction this only controls whether the input molecules appear on the left or right of the output reaction.

*SMILES was created by Dave Weininger whilst at EPA